Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is a city in southeastern Bangladesh and the capital of an eponymous district and division. Built on banks of the Karnaphuli River, the city is home to Bangladesh's busiest seaport and has a population of over 2.5 million, making it the second largest city in the country.Located between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal, Chittagong is a major commercial and industrial center as much of Bangladesh's export and import passes through the Port of Chittagong. The port has extensive facilities which are undergoing further development as Bangladesh prepares to serve as a transit country between North East India, Nepal, Bhutan, Southwest China and parts of Burma. According to a report released by International Institute for Environment and Development, Chittagong is among the ten fastest growing cities in the world. Much of the city is surrounded by hilly terrains, and is experiencing rapid urban growth along with increased congestion.During the early 17th centuries the city was called by the Portugese by the name Port Grande then a part of the Arakan Kingdom, before falling under Mughal rule in 1666. It was later renamed by the Mughals as Islamabad. In 1930, Bengali revolutionaries led by Surya Sen launched the Chittagong uprising against the British Raj, during which British armories, telegraph and telephone offices in the city were attacked and hundreds of Europeans were assassinated in the Chittagong Club. During the Burma Campaign of the Second World War, Chittagong's port served as a major supply line for Allied forces while its airport was a major station for US Air Force combat aircraft. After the Partition of India, the city became a part of East Pakistan. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Chittagong witnessed some of the heaviest fighting with the Mukti Bahini attacking Pakistani navy ships and the Indian navy firing missiles at Pakistani naval installations. It was in Chittagong where Awami League leader M A Hannan and liberation war hero and future Bangladeshi president Ziaur Rahman famously announced the declaration of independence of the country on behalf of independence leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Chittagong was also where the assassination of President Ziaur Rahman had taken place during a failed mutiny in 1981.